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Diabetic Retinopathy: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prevention

The eye issue known as diabetic retinopathy is directly related to diabetes. It’s brought on by problems with the blood vessels of the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). Diabetic retinopathy may initially present with no symptoms or just modest visual impairment. Unfortunately, it may cause blindness.

It may occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. This problem of the eyes is more common in those whose diabetes is not well managed. Experts believe that between 20% and 25% of the population of India is diabetic. Up to 25% of people with diabetes have diabetic retinopathy; however, many of these people have never had an eye exam and are thus unaware that they have the disease.

Also Read : टाइप 1, 2 मधुमेह म्हणजे काय?

Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy

Possible symptoms include:

  • Blurry eyesight 
  • Inadequate color perception
  • Eye floaters, also known as translucent spots and black threads, float in a person’s field of vision and follow the person’s line of sight as they gaze
  • Spots or lines that make it difficult to see
  • Having trouble seeing in the dark
  • A blank or black area in the middle of the vision
  • Sudden and permanent blindness

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    Causes of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Diabetes-related retinopathy is an injury to the retinal vessels and is only one of many eye problems that diabetes may cause. If left untreated, damage to these veins may cause a lack of blood supply (ischemia), inflammation, and eventually legal blindness.

    The majority of individuals with diabetic retinopathy are long-term diabetics, as shown by analyses of patient data. Diabetic retinopathy is more likely to develop as diabetes worsens.

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    If a patient with diabetic retinopathy also has an issue with his blood pressure, his rate of diabetic retinopathy advancement will be increased. The inadequate management of their diabetes also increases their risk of developing diabetic retinopathy.

    Patients with diabetes, high cholesterol, renal disease, anaemia, or a high concentration of red blood cells in the spleen or elsewhere would benefit from this. All of them have the potential to present difficulties associated with diabetic retinopathy.

    Treatment Options for Diabetic Retinopathy

    Options for diabetic retinopathy treatment include:

    • Injections: Medicines like anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medicines or corticosteroids are injected by a medical professional directly into the eye. The disease’s course may be slowed, and these medications can improve eyesight.
    • Laser surgery: A laser is used by your doctor to lessen the inflammation and prevent further blood vessel formation in the retina. When lasers are used on blood vessels, they either get smaller or cease leaking.
    • Vitrectomy: If blood vessels are leaking and obscuring your eyesight, your doctor may propose this outpatient procedure. A vitrectomy involves a tiny incision being made by the ophthalmologist. The healthcare professional can remove scar tissue and mend blood vessel damage.

    Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy

    Steps toward maintaining healthy blood vessels may help people with diabetes avoid the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    • You should do everything you can to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.
    • Maintain good blood pressure and cholesterol level.

    The following are other strategies for avoiding or dealing with the condition:
     

    • You should check your eyesight once a year.
    • Quit smoking
    • Do gentle exercise regularly. 

    Conclusion

    At least once a year, people with diabetes should have their eyes checked. Diabetic women must have an eye checkup during their first trimester of pregnancy.

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that may affect anybody with diabetes. This is a severe eye ailment that requires immediate medical attention.  

    Without treatment, blindness is a real possibility. Maintaining healthy blood sugar levels and good diabetes management is the greatest protection against diabetes-related complications.

    If you have recently experienced eye-light changes, you should see a doctor.

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