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Breast Cancer: Symptoms, Self-examination, and Treatment

Breast cancer is one of the most talked-about and prevalent forms of cancer globally. With a surge in awareness campaigns and scientific research, understanding the disease has become crucial.

This piece aims to shed light on its symptoms, the importance of self-examination, and the medical routes for its diagnosis and treatment.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer: What to Look Out For?

  • Breast Lump: The most common symptom, a lump in the breast, is often painless but can sometimes cause discomfort. Regular checks can help detect these lumps early, increasing the chances of successful treatment.
  • Nipple Discharge: An unexpected discharge from the nipple, especially if it’s bloody, is another sign to be vigilant about.
  • Breast Pain: Though breast pain can arise from various causes, persistent and localized pain might indicate an underlying issue.
  • Change in Nipple or Breast Size: Observing any sudden changes in the size or appearance of the breast or nipple is crucial. It could be a sign of an internal tumor reshaping the breast.

The Importance of Self-Examination

Self-examination is a pivotal preventative measure. By regularly checking one’s breasts, usually once or twice a week, individuals can become familiar with how their breasts typically feel.

Any changes or abnormalities can be spotted early. If any such changes are observed, it’s imperative to consult a family doctor or a specialized breast surgeon for a professional evaluation.

Diagnosing Breast Cancer: Steps Involved

Physical Examination by a Doctor: It starts with a doctor conducting a thorough examination of the breasts, noting any abnormalities or suspicious areas that may need further investigation.

  • Imaging: Various imaging techniques such as breast sonography, mammography, tomography, and MRI are employed. These tools offer a detailed view of the breast, aiding in pinpointing any abnormal growths.
  • Biopsy: If any suspicious areas are identified, a biopsy might be conducted where a sample of the breast tissue is taken and examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells.

Further Tests in Breast Cancer

Tests play a crucial role in breast cancer diagnosis, providing insight into its progression and stage. These evaluations ascertain if the cancer has metastasized beyond the breast.

Methods such as Chest X-rays, Abdominal Ultrasounds, PET Scans, and Bone Scans offer comprehensive views, enabling doctors to devise the most effective treatment strategies. Knowledge of the cancer’s reach is pivotal for informed therapeutic decisions.

Let’s understand them in a bit detail:

  • Chest X-ray: To check if the cancer has spread to the lungs.
  • Abdominal Ultrasound: This test helps in identifying if cancer has metastasized to liver or other organs within the abdomen.
  •  PET Scan: A detailed imaging test, it can show if and where cancer has spread.
  • Bone Scan: Employed to check if cancer cells have spread to the bones.

Treatment Options: Early vs. Late Stage Breast Cancer

Early Stage Breast Cancer Treatments: In the initial stages of breast cancer, surgery is the most recommended approach.

The surgery might involve removing the tumor or, in some cases, the entire breast. Post-surgery, other treatments may follow, depending on the specifics of the case.

Late-Stage Breast Cancer Treatments

As breast cancer progresses to its later stages, the complexity and severity of the disease demand a multifaceted approach to treatment.

Instead of relying on a singular method, a combination of treatments is often employed to combat the aggressive nature of advanced breast cancer. Here’s a more in-depth look at these treatments:

  1. Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy is a powerful treatment option that uses a variety of drugs designed specifically to target cancer cells. Its main objective is either to kill these cells or to hinder their growth and proliferation. Chemotherapy can be:

2. Systemic:

This involves administering the drugs in such a way that they travel throughout the entire body. Typically, they are given orally or injected into a vein. This approach ensures that even the cancer cells that have migrated from the original tumor to other parts of the body are targeted.

3. Localized:

In certain cases, the drugs are directed only to specific areas of the body, often near the cancer’s origin, ensuring a more concentrated attack while minimizing the impact on healthy cells.

4. Hormonal Therapy:

Some breast cancers are particularly sensitive to hormones, meaning their growth and survival depend heavily on specific hormonal interactions. Hormonal therapy aims to disrupt this dependency. The treatment works by either:

5. Blocking the body’s natural hormones:

Using medications, this approach prevents hormones, especially estrogen, from binding to their receptors on cancer cells. Without this interaction, the cancer cells struggle to survive and proliferate.

6. Reducing hormone production:

Some therapies focus on limiting or halting the production of particular hormones in the body, thereby depriving the cancer cells of the essential compounds they need to grow.


Breast cancer, a concern that affects countless lives, necessitates understanding and early detection. By being aware of the symptoms and regularly conducting self-examinations, one can catch potential warning signs early.

Additionally, advancements in medical science offer a range of diagnostic tools and treatments, tailored to each individual’s needs. It is a journey of awareness, early action, and hope.

About Author

Dr. Shama Shaikh

Dr. Shama Shaikh-Surve

General and Laparoscopic Surgeon
Contact: +91 88888 22222
Email – [email protected]

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